Multi-Level Socio-Technical Modeling and Enterprise Systems Analysis

Principal Investigators:  Dr. Michael Pennock, Stevens Institute of Technology for Tasks 110, 138, 161 (;

Co-Principal Investigators:  Dr. William Rouse, Stevens Institute of Technology ( and Dr. Doug Bodner, Georgia Institute of Technology (

Timeframe:  Phase I:  October 2012 to October 2013; Phase II:  December 2013 to January 15, 2015; Phase III:  March 2015 to March 2016; Phase IV:  May 2016 to April 2017

Category:  Enterprises and System of Systems (ESoS)


Objective:  To identify innovative approaches to support application of System Engineering in complex enterprise contexts for architecting, engineering and evolving enterprises, and for designing and engineering systems which effectively support user needs as part of a larger enterprise. This characterization and analysis should include human behavior and performance, individually, in teams, or in groups. Social networks that enable communication/propagation of information and ideas are also of interest.  Economic decision making relating to strategic and tactical incentives should be included, as well as social and cultural norms that influence all the above.

Approach:  The proposed overall methodology for creating and using enterprise models begins with agreeing on objectives and ends with agreeing on feasible solutions that merit empirical evaluation. The eights tasks associated with the methodology will be carried out in two phases:

  • Agreeing on objectives – the questions – for which the models will be constructed
  • Formulating the enterprise model – the engine for the policy flight simulator – including alternative representations and approaches to parameterization
  • Designing a human-computer interface that includes rich visualizations and associated controls for specifying scenarios
  • Iteratively developing, testing and debugging, including identifying faulty thinking in formulating the model
  • Interactively exploring the impacts of ranges of parameters and consequences of various scenarios
  • Agreeing on rules for eliminating solutions that do not make sense for one or more stakeholders
  • Defining the parameter surfaces of interest and “production” runs to map these surfaces
  • Agreeing on feasible solutions and the relative merits and benefits of each feasible solution

This research is being done in the context of a counterfeits parts case study, which will continue to be evolved with an emphasis on advancing the methodology and user support for classical methods.  Models needed to support the case study will be compiled and, if needed, developed; e.g., classical models of human behavior and performance. Selected, small-scale case studies may be developed to explore targeted problems on an as needed basis. Human, process, and economic models will be composed, with careful attention to assumptions, variable flows, etc. A principled approach will be taken, even if heuristic, at the semantic level of composition. Finally, a conceptual design of the visualization environment in a COTS application, e.g., Excel/VB, will be completed.




  • Integrated research findings into Course: SYS 611, Decision and Risk Analysis
  • New course introduced in Spring 2015: Modeling and Visualization of Complex Systems and Enterprises, based on RT-44, 110, and 138.
  • Completed prototype enterprise simulation: Counterfeit Parts Enterprise Model
  • Prototype simulation presented to
    • Academic peer review with representatives from MIT, Purdue, and Stevens Institute of Technology on September 25, 2015
    • MITRE, November 15, 2015
    • DASD(SE), February 1, 2016
    • Anti-counterfeiting roundtable review/workshop, with representatives from both industry and government, February 5, 2016
  • Prototype simulation used with SERC Integration Lab demonstration, SSRR, December 3, 2015




Pennock, M, Rouse, W., “The Challenges of Modeling Enterprise Systems”, 2014 CESUN, June 9-12, 2014, Hoboken, NJ

Bodner, D. A., “Enterprise Modeling Framework for Counterfeit Parts in Defense Systems”, 2014 Complex Adaptive Systems Conference, November 3-5, 2014, Philadelphia, PA

Pennock, M, Rouse, W., “Why Connecting Theories Together May Not Work: How to Address Complex Paradigm-Spanning Questions”, submitted to IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 2014, October 5-8, 2014, San Diego, CA.

Pennock, M. J. and Rouse, W. B., “The Epistemology of Enterprises. Systems Engineering,” Vol 19, No. 1, pp. 24-43, 2016

Rouse, W.B., “Modeling and Visualization of Complex Systems and Enterprises: Explorations of Physical, Human, Economic, and Social Phenomena”, Wiley, 2015


Pennock, M. J. and C. Gaffney, (2016), “Managing Epistemic Uncertainty for Multimodels of Sociotechnical Systems for Decision Support”, IEEE Systems Journal, DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2016.2598062

Bodner, D.A., 2015, “Mitigating Counterfeit Part Intrusions with Enterprise Simulation” 2015 Complex Adaptive Systems Conference, November 2-4, 2015, San Jose, CA

Oghbaie, M., M.J. Pennock, and W.B. Rouse, 2016, “Understanding the Efficacy of Interactive Visualization for Decision Making for Complex Systems”, IEEE Systems Conference 2016, April 18-21, 2016, Orlando, FL

Rouse, W.B, Pennock, M.J., and Cardoso, J., (2016) “Advances in Sociotechnical Systems”, in Hsu, J. and Curran, R. (eds), Advances in Systems Engineering, AIAA


Pennock, M. J., D.C. Bodner, and W.B. Rouse, (2016), “Lessons Learned from Evaluating an Enterprise Modeling Methodology”, IEEE Systems Journal, DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2016.2639464.

Bodner, D. A., “Securing Supply Chains from Counterfeiting Threats in a Transformed Open and Collaborative Enterprise,” International Physical Internet Conference 2016, June 29 – July 1, 2016

Cardoso, J. & Pennock, M. J. (2016). “Applying multi-modeling to enterprise strategic planning: What can actually learn?” CESUN 2016, June 27-29, 2016, Washington, DC

Research Team

Current  Research Team:

  • Dr. Michael Pennock
  • Dr. Doug Bodner
  • Dr. William Rouse

Graduate Student Researchers:

  • Joana Cardoso
  • Christopher Klesges

For Tasks 41 and 44a: Dr. William Rouse served as Principal Investigator with Dr. Doug Bodner serving as Co-Principal Investigator.

Past Student Researchers:


  • Mehrnoosh Oghbaie
  • Pallavi Prasad


  • Mehrnoosh Oghbaie
  • John Hinkel
  • Christopher Klesges

Collaborating Institutions

Project Researchers